Cheap Turkish Cigarettes and COPD exacerbation

A 67 year old male presents with dyspnea to the ED. He has an increased work of breathing, his O2 sats are in the mid 80s.

He states he was at a Wheezer concert 2 days prior with his wife, having a good time, and then developed cough, congestion. He subsequently developed shortness of breathing.

When you ask him if he has a history of smoking, he states, “nope”. When you notice his Camel Red cigarettes in his front shirt pocket, he states, “oh you mean those? Yea, I only smoke a pack a day, so not that much”.

Which of the following is true?

A. Pulmonary embolism occurs in as many as 20% of suspected COPD exacerbations

B. High risk COPD patients include those who have been hospitalized >2 times per year

C. Prednisone dose should be tapered if a patient is given a prescription

D. Steroids have been found to reduce relapses but not readmissions

E. The most common cause of COPD exacerbation is medication noncompliance